Sunday, May 24, 2020

Salem Witchcraft Trials Of 1692 - 1194 Words

Courtney Gray English III-3rd block Mrs. Gray 19 March 2012 Important Facts in the Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692 Black magic. The Dark Arts. Voodoo. Sorcery. Conjuring. Witchcraft. No matter what they chose to call it, witchcraft was an evil association with the devil and the use of magic or the alleged use of magic, in the eyes of the Puritans of Salem, Massachusetts. And it was the â€Å"alleged† part that caused the Salem Witchcraft Trials tragedy of 1692. The Puritans believed the signs of witchcraft were apparent if only people knew what to look for. Witches had physical signs, called â€Å"witches’ marks,† such as moles or other skin anomalies (Linder  ¶15). Anyone in league with the devil was also believed to be unable to recite the Lord’s Prayer, and George Burroughs cast serious doubt on the validity of the trials when he recited the Lord’s Prayer flawlessly as he stood upon the gallows (Netzley 215). Sadly, it was not enough to spare his life. The magistrates also believed â€Å"spectral evidence† was an acceptable means of identifying a witch. Spectral evidence was testimony that relied on the accusers, who allegedly saw the accused witch’s specter loose in Salem, causing pain and trouble to the good people in town (Benson, Brannen and Valentine 1362). Spectral evidence was impossible to prove or disprove, since only the afflicted people could see the specters (Benson, Brannen and Valentine 1362). Once a person was accused of witchcraft, he or she had to be put to theShow MoreRelatedEssay The Salem Witchcraft Trials of 16924260 Words   |  18 PagesThe Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692 The Salem witchcraft trials of 1692, which resulted in 19 executions, and 150 accusations of witchcraft, are one of the historical events almost everyone has heard of. They began when three young girls, Betty Parris, Abigail Williams and Ann Putnam began to have hysterical fits, after being discovered engaging in forbidden fortune-telling (not dancing naked in the woods) to learn what sorts of men they would marry. Bettys father, the Reverend Samuel ParrisRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trials Of 16921281 Words   |  6 PagesThe Salem Witch Trials were a sequence of hearings, prosecutions, and hangings of people who were thought to be involved in witchcraft in Massachusetts. These trials occurred between February 1692 and May 1693(The Salem Witch Trials, 1692. ). The Trials resulted in the execution of twenty people, in fact, most of them were women. The first of the trials began in several towns in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, such as Salem Village (currently known as Danvers), Salem Town, Ipswich, and Andover(SalemRead MoreMany Years Ago People Have Wonder About Witches And What1348 Words   |  6 Pageswonder about witches and what they do. Salem, Massachusetts held one of the biggest witch trials in history since 1692 but yet have never found the rea-son why it was started in the first place. Researchers have discovered some information about those witches thro ughout the years. Still they have not figured out what was the whole rea-son behind the trials in 1692 and after those trials a lot more trials were more secretive unlike the Salem witches tri-als in 1692. New England, home of the biggest witchesRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trials Essay1369 Words   |  6 PagesThe Salem Witch Trials The witch trials of the late 1600s were full of controversy and uncertainty. The Puritan town of Salem was home to most of these trials, and became the center of much attention in 1692. More than a hundred innocent people were found guilty of practicing witchcraft during these times, and our American government forced over a dozen to pay with their lives. The main reasons why the witch trials occurred were conflicts dealing with politics, religion, family, economicsRead More Exploring Explanations for the Salem Witch Trials Essay1332 Words   |  6 PagesBetween the years of 1692 and early 1693 in the colonial Massachusetts Bay colony of Essex known as Salem Village great paranoia broke out in the form of witchcraft accusations, neighbor against neighbor, and as a result much injustice was done. During this time in our nation’s history at this place more than one hundred and fifty people, residents of Salem Village, were accused of practicing witchcraft and consorting with the devil. At least twenty were put to death nineteen by hangingRead MoreSalem Witch Trials Case Review1377 Words   |  6 Pages The Salem Witch Trials was one of the most out of the box things back in 1692 Massachusetts, but it still seems to be quite unexplainable and at times shady. More than 200 people were accused of practicing the devil’s magic, but only about 20 were executed. Though people were killed, the colonists eventually admitted that the Salem Witch Trials were actually a mistake for which they later compensated the families that were convicted. I picked the Salem Witch Trials to type about because I wouldRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trials Essay1636 Words   |  7 PagesThe Salem Witch Trials Donnell Campbell Throughout history millions of people have been scorned, accused, arrested, tortured, put to trial and, persecuted as witches. One would think that by the time the United States was colonized, these injustices on humanity would have come to an end, but that was not so. In 1692 a major tragedy occurred in America, the Salem witch trials. It all began when a group of girls accused others, generally older women, of consorting with theRead MoreSalem Witch Trials : Witchcraft Trials1726 Words   |  7 PagesSalem Witch Trials Flaming sermons, bewitched girls, accusations being thrown here and there, and executions terrified colonists during the Salem witch trials. The Salem witch trials are well known, but they are not the first in America and are very small compared to other witch hunts. In 1648 Margaret Jones was hanged for witchcraft in Massachusetts (Brooks). In Europe 110,000 people were questioned during the 1300s to the 1700s, and 40,000 to 60,000 people were executed (New World Encyclopedia)Read MoreEssay on Salem Witch Trials Of 16921061 Words   |  5 PagesThe Salem Witch Trials of 1692 In colonial Massachusetts between February of 1692 and May of 1963 over one hundred and fifty people were arrested and imprisoned for the capital felony of witchcraft. Trials were held in Salem Village, Ipswich, Andover and Salem Town of Essex County of Massachusetts, but accusations of witchcraft occurred in surrounding counties as well. Nineteen of the accused, fourteen women and five men, were hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem Village. Hysteria had swept throughRead MoreReformation Paper : Salem Witch Trials1368 Words   |  6 PagesReformation Paper: Salem Witch Trials The reformation housed many impressive inventions such as the creation of gunpowder and the printing press along with many divisions like wars and radical religious ideas. The reformation was a period in history that caused many changes to the way Christianity operated forcing many communities to re-divide themselves among different religious loyalties. People like Martin Luther and John Calvin questioned their religion and aspects of the way the greedy and corrupt

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Pollution and Environment Essay - Overpopulation and...

Overpopulation and Personal Responsibility Ever since I was a little girl, I’ve dreamed of having a large family when I was older. I envied friends with three or four siblings. I’d proudly tell anyone I was going to have six children when I grew up. Now, I’m a little older, and still far away from making that decision, my conscious will still face a looming dilemma. With my knowledge negative impacts caused by overpopulation, how can I deliberately have a large family, while upholding my environmentalist values? Over the past few years I’ve found myself paying particular attention to articles about overpopulation, foreign adoption, and infertility caused by environmental factors. The older I get, the more stories I hear of friends†¦show more content†¦We can’t even agree on the right to have an abortion, much less the government using them to control population growth. In the US, women are concerned the right for an abortion will be taken away. On the other side of the world, women fear the government requiring an abortion. What happens when nature won’t let us have as many children as we want? In contrast to the fear of abortion, the fear of infertility is striking many couples around the world. More and more evidence is surfacing that relates factors in the environment to many forms of infertility. Studies have linked chemicals such as DDT and other pesticides to higher chances of infertility. Last summer, while on a plane I started a conversation with the woman next to me. She recently adopted a baby from Romania, and was anxious to get home to her little girl. She and her husband could not have their own child; they had spent years on hormone therapy and waiting lists for adoption. While on a religious mission to Romania, they decided to start the process of adopting a foreign baby. The couple spent many months and $20,000 to get their new toddler. She told me about all of the red tape and hurdles of getting their daughter, but she finally made it to their home. I was shocked to discover the difficulties of foreign adoption. This is the average amount spent on international adoption, and often there is no financial assistance. This situation seems most beneficial for children born intoShow MoreRelatedPersonal Environmental Statement and Action Plan1569 Words   |  7 Pages My Personal Environmental Statement and Action Plan The dynamic relationship between humans, Earth and all else within has always captivated me. I was born in 1973 in Jamaica, my parents were politically active, I was taken as a child to rallies mostly about challenging socio-political injustices and poverty, in the streets of London, Kingston and New York and can recall the first time hearing such terminology as, ‘limits to growth’, ‘the pollution pandemic’, ‘alternative energy’, ‘consumerismRead MoreSome people say that parents should decide on what kind of medical care their children should receive, while others believe that this is the state’s responsibility7734 Words   |  31 PagesSome people say that parents should decide on what kind of medical care their children should receive, while others believe that this is the state’s responsibility Discuss both views and give your opinion Although almost everyone agrees about the necessity to provide children with the best healthcare, there is some dispute about whether parents or the government should decide what that care is. My own view is that while governments may adopt a general policy for children’s medical care, parents shouldRead More Population And Immigration In Relation To The Job Market Essay3148 Words   |  13 Pagessupport a retired couple for three years given the current standard of living. Linked to this is the decrease in younger workers that can count on receiving company-paid pension benefits, since their employers are leaving their employees to take responsibility for their own retirement. (Louis S Richman, Why Baby Boomers Wont Be Able To Retire, Fortune September, 4 1995). So here you have a younger generation which is being denied job opportunities due to the elder generations resistance to retireRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesPHILADELPHIA Temple University Press 1601 North Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 www.temple.edu/tempress Copyright  © 2010 by Temple University All rights reserved Published 2010 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Essays on twentieth century history / edited by Michael Peter Adas for the American Historical Association. p. cm.—(Critical perspectives on the past) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4399-0269-1 (cloth : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0270-7Read MoreImpact of Science on Society38421 Words   |  154 PagesCataloging in PublicationData Burke, James, 1936The impact of science on society. (NASA SP ; 482) Series of lectures given at a public lecture series sponsored by NASA and the College of William and Mary in 1983. 1 . Science-Social aspects-Addresses, essays, lectures. I. Bergman, Jules. 11. Asimov, Isaac, 1920. 111. United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. IV.College of William and Mary. V. Title. VI. Series. Q175.55.B88 1985 303.4’83 84-1 4 1 59 For sale by the SuperintendentRead MoreImpact of Science on Society38427 Words   |  154 PagesCataloging in PublicationData Burke, James, 1936The impact of science on society. (NASA SP ; 482) Series of lectures given at a public lecture series sponsored by NASA and the College of William and Mary in 1983. 1 . Science-Social aspects-Addresses, essays, lectures. I. Bergman, Jules. 11. Asimov, Isaac, 1920. 111. United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. IV.College of William and Mary. V. Title. VI. Series. Q175.55.B88 1985 303.4’83 84-1 4 1 59 For sale by the Superintendent of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lack of Diversity in Management Coaching in Sports Free Essays

In recent history it has been evident that some of the most popularize sports in America have been dominated and overran by African American and other minority athletes. In turn when the coaching and management positions in sports are analyzed and broken down, the number of minority coaches and managers in sport are almost non-existent and have been since those sports organization became established. In 2006 Blacks made up about 14% of the population, 12% of all college enrollments, and nearly 24% of all collegiate scholarship athletes. We will write a custom essay sample on Lack of Diversity in Management Coaching in Sports or any similar topic only for you Order Now In some major sports, such as basketball and football, blacks make up a great percentage of athletes participating. In 2005 over 55% of all collegiate athletes on football scholarships were Blacks and about 62% of all collegiate athletes on basketball scholarships were Black and this is out of the NCAA’s 328 Division I schools. Despite the large number of Black representing the athletes in collegiate sport, the percentage of African Americans in coaching and administrative position were very small. In 2005 roughly 7% of all head coaches of men’s teams at the nation’s largest universities were black and only 6. 5% in women’s collegiate sports. The numbers are even smaller in the big-time revenue generating sports such as basketball and football. Just to give a breakdown of these percentages, there were only 3 head football coaches at the NCAA’s 119 D I-A schools. What tends to help the racial lines seen been athletes on the field/court of play and the people who are in the position of power. One thing that helps alleviate this barrier is the number of minority assistant coaches in position. The percentage of minority assistant coaches in collegiate sports are far greater that of head coaches in power. It seems that it’s expected to for a white man to be in power and for blacks and other minorities to be in assistant roles that it’s become normal in sports and unquestioned. The authority of white head coaches is often legitimized through the eyes of black athletes when its seen that black assistant are taking orders from a white coach. This is an issue that has become to be expected in both collegiate and professional sports (Anonymous, 36-37). It may not be thought about much but there are some racial games that are played. Although the Rooney Rule has at least given minority head coaches a chance to potentially get hired because they actually get a chance to get an interview, many still see it as just a rule put into place to make it seem like everything is equal and to save face from scrutiny about racial issues in sport. In 2003, Mike Millen the president of the Detroit Lions was fined for not interviewing a minority. He was not fined for intentionally not interviewing minority coaches, he actually contacted five different minority coaches and each of them turned the request for an interview down. Each of them felt like the job was already Steve Mariucci and felt like they were just being interviewed just so that the Detroit Lions could fill their obligation to interview a minority coach. The problem not only lies with collegiate and professional sports organizations and the issue of not interviewing and hiring more minority coaches and managers but also stems from this minorities feeling that they don’t have a fair shot at the position. Some minorities looking for a head coaching position also have negative feelings towards getting called up for an interview just because of rule that was put into place that forces teams to do this. Some feel like if the Rooney Rule wasn’t in place that general managers wouldn’t go out of there to try and search for minority coaches to interview like that have to do now. A subconscious bias is happening within these organizations because the managers are taking the notion that we’re giving â€Å"them† a â€Å"fair† chance at the position because we are given them an interview just like everyone else. In reality its being done to help shift focus away from the lack of diversity and make it seem that things are much better in that department and that organizations are treating the issue with an open mind (Nordlinger, J. , 25-26). On the issue of the lack of minority representation in the administration side of sport lacks even more than minority coaches. The hiring of administrators of color has been extremely limited and still continues to be today. In 1999 NCAA reported a combined percentage of minority administrators in position is a mere 10%, which includes all areas of the administrator sector in NCAA D-I sports. This statistic includes both women and men which shows that representation of minorities have been scarce both on and off the field in NCAA D-I sports. The biggest concern with the lack of minorities in top leadership positions in collegiate sports starts with top-level managers themselves such as college presidents, athletic directors, and conference commissioners not aggressively pursuing minorities for leadership roles. This not happening will continue to bring up the same issues about underrepresentation in sport period. Putting more minorities in position will lead to more and more minorities potentially getting opportunities for interviews through the passing of knowledge from other minorities alike. The NCAA is taking steps to trying to bridge the gap by planning to open a Minority Institute to develop minorities and give them the necessary skills needed to compete with their white counterparts (Greenlee, 1). I feel that both professional and collegiate sports can do a little more than what is being done to bring more diversity to its organizations and teams within its governing body. The Rooney Rule is a start for sports as a whole period to bring in more minorities, although the rule is only geared toward the NFL it kind of opens the eyes of other leagues to potentially implement a rule or some different policies that give minorities an equal shot of obtaining the same position as whites. I believe that clinics or some programs should be set up to help minority coaches and minorities looking to get into the administration side of sport, gain knowledge and skills to help make them more successful as leaders. In turn this could make organization better as a whole because different ideas and not just the same mindset of how things should and could be done within the organization. General Managers and other administrators would get a chance to better interact with a person of minority working within an organization and would be able to gain knowledge from them as well. Depending on how well the minority coach or administrator does and the type of knowledge the person possesses could really open of the eyes of his/her white colleagues and help others get their foot in the door. Ever since minorities have gotten a chance to take on roles such as head coaching positions and in different management position they have been seen as unsuccessful. I believe that this is because they have had limited opportunities and have not always come into the best of situations with teams that have hired them. Ultimately whites are seen as most successful because they are the majority they have more people in position that are and have succeeded but also more that have ailed. Their successes have been highlighted over their failures and it seems like minority coaches and minorities in top-level management positions failures have been highlighted over their successes. Although the number of minorities hired for coaching and management positions are very limited they will have to be successful in order for them to be legitimatized and given fair shots at getting major positions within sport organizations and leagues. Until minorities represent a percentage that is seen as acceptable in relation the country’s population in America is then where the issue of the lack of diversity in major level positions in sport die out. Works Cited Anonymous, . (2006/2007). Black Teams, White Coaches: Racial Inequality in Coaching of College Sports. Journal of Black in Higher Education, 1(54), 36-37. Greenlee,. (2000). NCAA Report Finds Little Diversity In Sports Administration. Black Issues in Higher Education, 1. Nordlinger, J. (2003). Color in Coaching. National Review, 55(16), 25-26. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. How to cite Lack of Diversity in Management Coaching in Sports, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Natural Resource Management free essay sample

Natural Resource Management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations Natural resource management is congruent with the concept of sustainable development, a scientific principle that forms a basis for sustainable global land management and environmental governance to conserve and preserve natural resources. Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources. 1] Environmental management is also similar to natural resource management. The Natural resource management emphasis on sustainability can be traced back to early attempts to understand the ecological nature of American rangelands in the late 19th century, and the resource conservationmovement of the same time. [2][3] This type of analysis coalesced in t he 20th century with recognition that preservationist conservation strategies had not been effective in halting the decline of natural resources. We will write a custom essay sample on Natural Resource Management or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A more integrated approach was implemented recognising the intertwined social, cultural, economic and political aspects of resource management. 4] A more holistic, national and even global form evolved, culminating in the Brundtland Commission and the advocacy of sustainable development. The most active areas of natural resource management are Wildlife management often associated with Eco-tourism and Rangeland (pastures) management. The Natural resource management emphasis on sustainability can be traced back to early attempts to understand the ecological nature of American rangelands in the late 19th century, and the resource conservation movement of the same time. This type of analysis coalesced in the 20th century with recognition that preservationist conservation strategies had not been effective in halting the decline of natural resources. A more integrated approach was implemented recognising the intertwined social, cultural, economic and political aspects of resource management. [4] A more holistic, national and even global form evolved, culminating in the Brundtland Commission and the advocacy of sustainable development. The most active areas of natural resource management are Wildlife management often associated with Eco-tourism and Rangeland (pastures) management.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Building Management Systems Essay Example

Building Management Systems Essay A BMS consists of software and hardware; the software program, usually configured in a hierarchical manner, can be proprietary, using such protocols as C-bus, Profibus, and so on. Vendors are also producing BMSs that integrate using Internet protocols and open standards such as DeviceNet, SOAP, XML, BACnet and Modbus. A BMS is most common in a large building. Its core function is to manage the environment within the building and may control temperature, carbon dioxide levels and humidity within a building. As a core function in most BMS systems, it controls heating and cooling, manages the systems that distribute this air throughout the building (for example by operating fans or opening/closing dampers), and then locally controls the mixture of heating and cooling to achieve the desired room temperature. A secondary function sometimes is to monitor the level of human-generated CO2, mixing in outside air with waste air to increase the amount of oxygen while also minimising heat/cooling losses. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a buildings energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand. Improperly configured BMS systems are believed to account for 20% of building energy usage, or approximately 8% of total energy usage in the United States. As well as controlling the buildings internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control (turnstiles and access doors controlling who is allowed access and egress to the building) or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. We will write a custom essay sample on Building Management Systems specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Building Management Systems specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Building Management Systems specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS, for example, if a fire is detected then the system could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them in the event of a fire. In this report it is discussed the building management system (BMS) implemented in Administration Building of Trelleborg Lanka (Pvt) Ltd. It is a distributed control system with a computerized network of electronic devices. The BMS was setup is to control, monitor and optimize building service such as Lighting, Air conditioning, Fire security, CCTV system, etc. Main objectives were as follows. ? Good control of internal comfort conditions ? Zonal control ? Increased staff productivity ? Effective monitoring and targeting of energy consumption ? Effective response to HVAC-related complaints ? Flexibility on change of building use ? Central control and monitoring of building ? Time saving ? Low operating cost ? Efficient use of building resources and services Rapid alarm indication and fault diagnosis Systems linked to the BMS represent 80% of a buildings energy usage. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also linked to the BMS, for example, if a fire is detected then the system could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them in the event of a fire. The BMS comprises: ? Power system ? Li ghting system ? Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning system ? Security system Fire alarm system ? Elevators etc. 2. 0 SENSOR AND ACTUATORS USED ? Temperature Transducers [pic] [pic] ? Pressure sensors [pic] [pic] ? Humidity Sensor ? Differential Pressure sensors [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] ? Humidity Transducers [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] ? Level sensors ? CO2 sensor ? Flow Meter ? CCTV Cameras ? Light sensors ? Occupancy sensors ? Water Pumps ? Valve actuators ? Fans 3. 0 DETAILS OF CONTROLLERS/DDC USED Inputs allow the controller to read temperatures, humidity, pressure, air flow, and other essential factors. The outputs allow the controller to send command and control signals to slave devices, and to other parts of the system. Inputs and outputs are digital or analog. The BMS is facilitated with a System/Network controller as this is a Supermarket/Office building. System controllers provide general purpose feedback loops, as well as digital circuits. System/Network controllers are applied to control more mechanical systems such as an Air Handler Unit (AHU), boiler, chiller, etc. Terminal Unit controller is used for control of lighting. |POINT SCHEDULE -BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEM (TRELLEBORG LANKA (PVT) LTD |   |   |   |   |   |   | | | | | |DIGITA|DIGITA|ANALOG |ANALOG| | | | | | |L |L |INPUT |OUTPUT| | | | | | |INPUT |OUTPUT| | | | | | | | |DI |DO |AI | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | | | | | | | | | [pic] 4. 0 SOFTWARE, GUI AND COMM UNICATION PROTOCOLS USED Open protocols were used. ? DeviceNet ? XML ? simple graphical interface 5. 0 DRAWBACKS OF THE SYSTEM ? Confusion is higher about responsibility of errors and faulty point identification when things go wrong since the open protocols were used. ? More than one points of contacts for any problem with BMS. ? Software and hardware was provided by different manufactures according to the requirements indicated in the point schedule. 6. 0 DISCUSSION The BMS implemented in Administration Building of Trelleborg Lanka (Pvt) Ltd comprises above mentioned mechanical and electrical services in order to provide the facilities necessary for maintaining a comfortable working environment. Basic controls took the form of manual switching, time clocks or temperature switches that provide the on and off signals for enabling pumps, fans or valves etc. The purpose of the Building Management System (BMS) was to automate and take control of these operations in the most efficient way possible for the occupiers, within the constraints of the installed plant. The BMS is a â€Å"stand alone† computer system that calculates the pre-set requirements of the building and control the connected plant to meet those needs. Its inputs, such as temperature sensors and outputs, such as on/off signals are connected into outstations around the building. Programmes within these outstations use this information to decide the necessary level of applied control. The level of control via the BMS is dependent upon the information received from its sensors and the way in which its programmes tell it to respond to that information. As well as offering a precise degree of control to its environment, it can be made to alarm on conditions that can’t meet specification or warn of individual items of plant failure. Occupancy times for different areas are programmed into the Building Management System such that the plant is brought on and off to meet the occupier requirements. These times are often under optimum start control. This means that the chilled water pumps, AHU, etc are enabled, at a varying predetermined time, to ensure that the cooled space is at the set desired temperature for the start of the day. The Building Automation System therefore, based on the outside air temperature the space temperature and the building structure, determines the AC plant start time. Occupied, Unoccupied are the two operating modes for the building automation system. Occupancy is usually based on time of day schedules. In Occupancy mode, the BMS aims to provide a comfortable climate and adequate lighting, often with zone-based control so that users on one side of a building have a different thermostat than users on the opposite side. A temperature sensor in the zone provides feedback to the controller, so it can deliver cooling as needed. Lighting can be turned on and off with the building automation system based on time of day by occupancy sensors and timers. One typical example is to turn the lights in a space on for a half hour since the last motion was sensed. A photocell placed outside a building can sense darkness, and the time of day, and modulate lights in outer offices and the parking lot. Air handlers mix return and outside air so less temperature change is needed. This can save money by using less chilled water. Some external air is needed to keep the buildings air healthy. Analog temperature sensors have been placed in the space, the return and supply air ducts. Actuators are placed on chilled water valves, the outside air and return air dampers. The supply fan is started and stopped based on temperatures and building pressures combination. The constant volume air handling unit, are used. CAVs open and close dampers and water-supply valves to maintain temperatures in the buildings spaces. They cool the spaces by opening or closing chilled water valves that feed their internal heat exchangers. Generally one CAV serves several spaces. Chilled water is used to cool a buildings air and equipment. The chilled water system has two chillers and pumps. Analog temperature sensors measure the chilled water supply and return lines. The chillers are sequenced on and off to chill the chilled water supply. Two cooling towers and pumps are used to supply cool condenser water to the chillers. The condenser water supply to the chillers has to be constant so, speed drives are used on the cooling tower fans to control temperature. Proper cooling tower temperature assures the proper refrigerant head pressure in the chiller. Analog temperature sensors measure the condenser water supply and return lines. The building automation system has alarm capabilities. If an alarm is detected, it is programmed to notify someone. Notification is through a computer and audible alarm. Fire and smoke alarm systems are hard-wired to override building automation. The hot water system supplies heat to hot water heating coils. The hot water system has a boiler and pumps. Analog temperature sensors are placed in the hot water supply. The boiler and pumps are sequenced on and off to maintain supply. Name : A. P. W. Jayasekara(09/8660) P. G. C. Karunathilake(09/8663) W. M. A. S. Wijethunga(09/8678) T. N. Walpita(09/8676) Course : MSc in Electrical Engineering-Department of Electrical Engineering, University Of Moratuwa. Lec. By : Prof. Lanka Udawatta. Date : 2010-08-14 ASSIGNMENT Building Management System – EE5118

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Australian Wills, Estates, and Probate Records

Australian Wills, Estates, and Probate Records Wills and probate records can often be a gold mine when researching Australian ancestors. Wills generally list surviving heirs by name, providing confirmation of family relationships. Probate records which document the handling of the estate through the court, whether the deceased died testate (with a will) or intestate (without a will), may help identify where family members were living at the time, including those residing in other Australian states, or even back in Great Britain. For more information on the valuable genealogical clues estate records can provide, see Probing into Probate Records. There is no central archive of wills in Australia. Instead, wills and probate registers are maintained by each Australian state, generally through the probate registry or probate office of the Supreme Court. Some states have transferred their early wills and probates, or provided copies, to the State Archives or Public Record Office. Many Australian probate records have also been filmed by the Family History Library, but some of these films are not permitted to be circulated to Family History Centers. How to Locate Australian Wills Probate Records AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORYRecords begin in 1911Indexes to wills and probate records in the Australian Capital Territory have not been published, and the records are not available online. ACT Supreme Court Registry4 Knowles PlaceCanberra ACT 2601 NEW SOUTH WALESRecords begin in 1800The Supreme Court NSW Probate Division has published an index to probates granted in NSW between 1800 and 1985, available in the NSW State Records Authority reading room and many major libraries (not available online). An index to early wills not included in the regular probate series is available online. Probate packets and wills from 1817 through 1965 have been transferred from the Supreme Court to the State Records Authority of New South Wales. Many of these probate packets are indexed online in Archives Investigator, including Series 1 (1817–1873), Series 2 (1873–1876), Series 3 (1876–c.1890) and a portion of Series 4 (1928–1954). Select Simple Search and then type in the name of your ancestor (or even just a surname), plus the term death to find indexed wills and probates, including the information youll need to retrieve a copy of the full probate packet. Learn more in the NSW Archives briefs Probate Packets and Deceased Estate Files, 1880–1958. State RecordsWestern Sydney Records Centre143 OConnell StreetKingswood NSW 2747 Access to wills and probate records from 1966 to the present require an application  to the Probate Division of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Supreme Court of New South WalesProbate DivisionG.P.O. Box 3Sydney NSW 2000 NORTHERN TERRITORYRecords begin in 1911Indexes to Northern Territory wills and probates have been created and published on microfiche. The Family History Library has a partial set, but they are not open for circulation to Family History Centers (viewable in Salt Lake City only). Alternatively, send a SASE to the Northern Territory Registrar of Probates with details on the descendant, and they will send a return letter regarding the availability of the record and fees to obtain a copy. Registrar of ProbatesSupreme Court of the Northern TerritoryLaw Courts BuildingMitchell StreetDarwin, Northern Territory 0800 QUEENSLANDRecords begin in 1857Queensland has more will and probate records online than any other Australian state or territory, courtesy of the Queensland State Archives. Detailed information is available in their Brief Guide 19: Will Intestacy Records. Index to Wills, 1857-1940  - An online index to wills compiled from original Supreme Court files from all districts, including a few wills for people who died outside Queensland.Equity Index 1857-1899  - An online index to original Supreme Court Equity files that include the names of all people connected with a case.Instruments of Renunciation 1915-1983 - Lodged by executors who were no longer willing to administer a will, these records include many details on the deceased and estate.Trustees Files Index 1889-1929 - Files related to trusts set up under the terms of a will. Queensland State Archives435 Compton Road, RuncornBrisbane, Queensland 4113 More recent probates in Queensland are administered by and available through Queensland district court registrars. An index to the most recent probates from all districts can be searched online. Queensland eCourts Party Search – An online index to Queensland Supreme and District Court files from as early as 1992 (Brisbane) to the present. Supreme Court of Queensland, Southern DistrictGeorge StreetBrisbane, Queensland 4000 Supreme Court of Queensland, Central DistrictEast StreetRockhampton, Queensland 4700 Supreme Court of Queensland, Northern DistrictWalker StreetTownsville, Queensland 4810 SOUTH AUSTRALIARecords begin in 1832The Probate Registry Office holds wills and related documents for South Australia from 1844. Adelaide Proformat offers a fee-based probate record access service. Probate Registry OfficeSupreme Court of South Australia1 Gouger StreetAdelaide, SA 5000 TASMANIARecords begin in 1824The Archives Office of Tasmania holds most older records relating to the administration of probate in Tasmania; their Brief Guide 12: Probate includes details on all available records. The Archives Office also has an online index with digitized copies of wills (AD960) and letters of administration (AD961) up to 1989 available for online viewing. Index to Wills Letters of Administration from 1824-1989 (Tasmania) (includes digitized records) Probate RegistrySupreme Court of TasmaniaSalamanca PlaceHobart, Tasmania 7000 VICTORIARecords begin in 1841Wills and probate records created in Victoria between 1841 and 1925 have been indexed and digitized and made available online free of charge. Records of wills and probate records up to 1992 will eventually be included in this online index. Probate records after 1925 and up through about the last decade or so can be ordered through the Public Record Office of Victoria. Public Record Office Victoria99 Shiel StreetNorth Melbourne VIC 3051 Index to Wills, Probate and Administration Records 1841-1925 (Victoria) (includes digitized records) Generally, wills and probate records created within the past 7 to 10 years can be accessed through the Probate Office of the Supreme Court of Victoria. Registrar of ProbatesSupreme Court of VictoriaLevel 2: 436 Lonsdale StreetMelbourne VIC 3000 WESTERN AUSTRALIARecords from 1832Probate records and wills in Western Australia are not generally available online. See Information Sheet: Grants of Probate (Wills) and Letters of Administration from the State Records Office of Western Australia for further information. The State Records Office holds two indexes to wills and letters of administration: 1832-1939 and 1900-1993. Files up to 1947 are available at State Records Office on microfilm for viewing. State Records OfficeAlexander Library BuildingJames Street West EntrancePerth Cultural CentrePerth WA 6000 Most Supreme Court records in Western Australia, including probates, are covered by a 75 year restricted access period to protect the privacy of persons mentioned in the records. Written permission from the Supreme Court is needed before viewing. Probate Office14th Floor, 111 Georges StreetPerth WA 6000

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

The Effects of One-On-One Intervention on Letter Recognition in Dissertation

The Effects of One-On-One Intervention on Letter Recognition in Kindergartners - Dissertation Example ention is not justified because at the end of the day, individual letters do not matter very much and other lesser grilling  methods of teaching can be applied (Gillon, 2004). This study is, therefore, going to look at the effects that some of these interventions have on the kindergarten and establish whether to promote them or curtail their usage. Background and Justification According to Fulk (1997) et al., â€Å"there are various conflicts and concerns about the best way to help the pupil to achieve a concrete letter recognition ability, if at all that is needed.† There have been countless critics of the best way to approach this issue with the maximum result. They carried out a study which will be given shortly in the literature review section. It was clear that there were several methods of intervention such as picture mnemonics, letter speed race, letter, matches, rhyming concepts, ordering methods and so forth. The methods have existed from a very long time but also t here are those that have come up in the recent past which are either created by the individual teachers creatively approaching the subject. The other references that have been applied in this context also agree that the methods are a good mode of teaching (Bastano, 2008). The study is, therefore, justified to seek answers about the effectiveness of the specific letter-recognition intervention method that are being applied by many people in the learning institutions. Martinez (2010) argues that â€Å"despite the curriculum of teaching in schools putting emphasis on the pupils to be able to know letters in all formats and correctly name them, it is not as important as the effort that is put in it†. This poses a big conflict about the justification of the one-on-one intervention of the letter recognition... From this dissertation it is clear that there are various conflicts and concerns about the best way to help the pupil to achieve a concrete letter recognition ability, if at all that is needed. There have been countless critics of the best way to approach this issue with the maximum result. They carried out a study which will be given shortly in the literature review section. It was clear that there were several methods of intervention such as picture mnemonics, letter speed race, letter, matches, rhyming concepts, ordering methods and so forth. The methods have existed from a very long time but also there are those that have come up in the recent past which are either created by the individual teachers creatively approaching the subject. The other references that have been applied in this context also agree that the methods are a good mode of teaching. Martinez argues that â€Å"despite the curriculum of teaching in schools putting emphasis on the pupils to be able to know letters in all formats and correctly name them, it is not as important as the effort that is put in it†. This poses a big conflict about the justification of the one-on-one intervention of the letter recognition exercise. Because of these arguments the instructional techniques that are used in kindergarten setting ought to be customized for the pupils for better results. The question here there ore is how effective are those instructional strategies in the teaching environment and what are the impacts of them on the young minds.