Friday, March 27, 2020

Building Management Systems Essay Example

Building Management Systems Essay A BMS consists of software and hardware; the software program, usually configured in a hierarchical manner, can be proprietary, using such protocols as C-bus, Profibus, and so on. Vendors are also producing BMSs that integrate using Internet protocols and open standards such as DeviceNet, SOAP, XML, BACnet and Modbus. A BMS is most common in a large building. Its core function is to manage the environment within the building and may control temperature, carbon dioxide levels and humidity within a building. As a core function in most BMS systems, it controls heating and cooling, manages the systems that distribute this air throughout the building (for example by operating fans or opening/closing dampers), and then locally controls the mixture of heating and cooling to achieve the desired room temperature. A secondary function sometimes is to monitor the level of human-generated CO2, mixing in outside air with waste air to increase the amount of oxygen while also minimising heat/cooling losses. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a buildings energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand. Improperly configured BMS systems are believed to account for 20% of building energy usage, or approximately 8% of total energy usage in the United States. As well as controlling the buildings internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control (turnstiles and access doors controlling who is allowed access and egress to the building) or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. We will write a custom essay sample on Building Management Systems specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Building Management Systems specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Building Management Systems specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS, for example, if a fire is detected then the system could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them in the event of a fire. In this report it is discussed the building management system (BMS) implemented in Administration Building of Trelleborg Lanka (Pvt) Ltd. It is a distributed control system with a computerized network of electronic devices. The BMS was setup is to control, monitor and optimize building service such as Lighting, Air conditioning, Fire security, CCTV system, etc. Main objectives were as follows. ? Good control of internal comfort conditions ? Zonal control ? Increased staff productivity ? Effective monitoring and targeting of energy consumption ? Effective response to HVAC-related complaints ? Flexibility on change of building use ? Central control and monitoring of building ? Time saving ? Low operating cost ? Efficient use of building resources and services Rapid alarm indication and fault diagnosis Systems linked to the BMS represent 80% of a buildings energy usage. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also linked to the BMS, for example, if a fire is detected then the system could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them in the event of a fire. The BMS comprises: ? Power system ? Li ghting system ? Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning system ? Security system Fire alarm system ? Elevators etc. 2. 0 SENSOR AND ACTUATORS USED ? Temperature Transducers [pic] [pic] ? Pressure sensors [pic] [pic] ? Humidity Sensor ? Differential Pressure sensors [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] ? Humidity Transducers [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] ? Level sensors ? CO2 sensor ? Flow Meter ? CCTV Cameras ? Light sensors ? Occupancy sensors ? Water Pumps ? Valve actuators ? Fans 3. 0 DETAILS OF CONTROLLERS/DDC USED Inputs allow the controller to read temperatures, humidity, pressure, air flow, and other essential factors. The outputs allow the controller to send command and control signals to slave devices, and to other parts of the system. Inputs and outputs are digital or analog. The BMS is facilitated with a System/Network controller as this is a Supermarket/Office building. System controllers provide general purpose feedback loops, as well as digital circuits. System/Network controllers are applied to control more mechanical systems such as an Air Handler Unit (AHU), boiler, chiller, etc. Terminal Unit controller is used for control of lighting. |POINT SCHEDULE -BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEM (TRELLEBORG LANKA (PVT) LTD |   |   |   |   |   |   | | | | | |DIGITA|DIGITA|ANALOG |ANALOG| | | | | | |L |L |INPUT |OUTPUT| | | | | | |INPUT |OUTPUT| | | | | | | | |DI |DO |AI | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | | | | | | | | | [pic] 4. 0 SOFTWARE, GUI AND COMM UNICATION PROTOCOLS USED Open protocols were used. ? DeviceNet ? XML ? simple graphical interface 5. 0 DRAWBACKS OF THE SYSTEM ? Confusion is higher about responsibility of errors and faulty point identification when things go wrong since the open protocols were used. ? More than one points of contacts for any problem with BMS. ? Software and hardware was provided by different manufactures according to the requirements indicated in the point schedule. 6. 0 DISCUSSION The BMS implemented in Administration Building of Trelleborg Lanka (Pvt) Ltd comprises above mentioned mechanical and electrical services in order to provide the facilities necessary for maintaining a comfortable working environment. Basic controls took the form of manual switching, time clocks or temperature switches that provide the on and off signals for enabling pumps, fans or valves etc. The purpose of the Building Management System (BMS) was to automate and take control of these operations in the most efficient way possible for the occupiers, within the constraints of the installed plant. The BMS is a â€Å"stand alone† computer system that calculates the pre-set requirements of the building and control the connected plant to meet those needs. Its inputs, such as temperature sensors and outputs, such as on/off signals are connected into outstations around the building. Programmes within these outstations use this information to decide the necessary level of applied control. The level of control via the BMS is dependent upon the information received from its sensors and the way in which its programmes tell it to respond to that information. As well as offering a precise degree of control to its environment, it can be made to alarm on conditions that can’t meet specification or warn of individual items of plant failure. Occupancy times for different areas are programmed into the Building Management System such that the plant is brought on and off to meet the occupier requirements. These times are often under optimum start control. This means that the chilled water pumps, AHU, etc are enabled, at a varying predetermined time, to ensure that the cooled space is at the set desired temperature for the start of the day. The Building Automation System therefore, based on the outside air temperature the space temperature and the building structure, determines the AC plant start time. Occupied, Unoccupied are the two operating modes for the building automation system. Occupancy is usually based on time of day schedules. In Occupancy mode, the BMS aims to provide a comfortable climate and adequate lighting, often with zone-based control so that users on one side of a building have a different thermostat than users on the opposite side. A temperature sensor in the zone provides feedback to the controller, so it can deliver cooling as needed. Lighting can be turned on and off with the building automation system based on time of day by occupancy sensors and timers. One typical example is to turn the lights in a space on for a half hour since the last motion was sensed. A photocell placed outside a building can sense darkness, and the time of day, and modulate lights in outer offices and the parking lot. Air handlers mix return and outside air so less temperature change is needed. This can save money by using less chilled water. Some external air is needed to keep the buildings air healthy. Analog temperature sensors have been placed in the space, the return and supply air ducts. Actuators are placed on chilled water valves, the outside air and return air dampers. The supply fan is started and stopped based on temperatures and building pressures combination. The constant volume air handling unit, are used. CAVs open and close dampers and water-supply valves to maintain temperatures in the buildings spaces. They cool the spaces by opening or closing chilled water valves that feed their internal heat exchangers. Generally one CAV serves several spaces. Chilled water is used to cool a buildings air and equipment. The chilled water system has two chillers and pumps. Analog temperature sensors measure the chilled water supply and return lines. The chillers are sequenced on and off to chill the chilled water supply. Two cooling towers and pumps are used to supply cool condenser water to the chillers. The condenser water supply to the chillers has to be constant so, speed drives are used on the cooling tower fans to control temperature. Proper cooling tower temperature assures the proper refrigerant head pressure in the chiller. Analog temperature sensors measure the condenser water supply and return lines. The building automation system has alarm capabilities. If an alarm is detected, it is programmed to notify someone. Notification is through a computer and audible alarm. Fire and smoke alarm systems are hard-wired to override building automation. The hot water system supplies heat to hot water heating coils. The hot water system has a boiler and pumps. Analog temperature sensors are placed in the hot water supply. The boiler and pumps are sequenced on and off to maintain supply. Name : A. P. W. Jayasekara(09/8660) P. G. C. Karunathilake(09/8663) W. M. A. S. Wijethunga(09/8678) T. N. Walpita(09/8676) Course : MSc in Electrical Engineering-Department of Electrical Engineering, University Of Moratuwa. Lec. By : Prof. Lanka Udawatta. Date : 2010-08-14 ASSIGNMENT Building Management System – EE5118

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Australian Wills, Estates, and Probate Records

Australian Wills, Estates, and Probate Records Wills and probate records can often be a gold mine when researching Australian ancestors. Wills generally list surviving heirs by name, providing confirmation of family relationships. Probate records which document the handling of the estate through the court, whether the deceased died testate (with a will) or intestate (without a will), may help identify where family members were living at the time, including those residing in other Australian states, or even back in Great Britain. For more information on the valuable genealogical clues estate records can provide, see Probing into Probate Records. There is no central archive of wills in Australia. Instead, wills and probate registers are maintained by each Australian state, generally through the probate registry or probate office of the Supreme Court. Some states have transferred their early wills and probates, or provided copies, to the State Archives or Public Record Office. Many Australian probate records have also been filmed by the Family History Library, but some of these films are not permitted to be circulated to Family History Centers. How to Locate Australian Wills Probate Records AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORYRecords begin in 1911Indexes to wills and probate records in the Australian Capital Territory have not been published, and the records are not available online. ACT Supreme Court Registry4 Knowles PlaceCanberra ACT 2601 NEW SOUTH WALESRecords begin in 1800The Supreme Court NSW Probate Division has published an index to probates granted in NSW between 1800 and 1985, available in the NSW State Records Authority reading room and many major libraries (not available online). An index to early wills not included in the regular probate series is available online. Probate packets and wills from 1817 through 1965 have been transferred from the Supreme Court to the State Records Authority of New South Wales. Many of these probate packets are indexed online in Archives Investigator, including Series 1 (1817–1873), Series 2 (1873–1876), Series 3 (1876–c.1890) and a portion of Series 4 (1928–1954). Select Simple Search and then type in the name of your ancestor (or even just a surname), plus the term death to find indexed wills and probates, including the information youll need to retrieve a copy of the full probate packet. Learn more in the NSW Archives briefs Probate Packets and Deceased Estate Files, 1880–1958. State RecordsWestern Sydney Records Centre143 OConnell StreetKingswood NSW 2747 Access to wills and probate records from 1966 to the present require an application  to the Probate Division of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Supreme Court of New South WalesProbate DivisionG.P.O. Box 3Sydney NSW 2000 NORTHERN TERRITORYRecords begin in 1911Indexes to Northern Territory wills and probates have been created and published on microfiche. The Family History Library has a partial set, but they are not open for circulation to Family History Centers (viewable in Salt Lake City only). Alternatively, send a SASE to the Northern Territory Registrar of Probates with details on the descendant, and they will send a return letter regarding the availability of the record and fees to obtain a copy. Registrar of ProbatesSupreme Court of the Northern TerritoryLaw Courts BuildingMitchell StreetDarwin, Northern Territory 0800 QUEENSLANDRecords begin in 1857Queensland has more will and probate records online than any other Australian state or territory, courtesy of the Queensland State Archives. Detailed information is available in their Brief Guide 19: Will Intestacy Records. Index to Wills, 1857-1940  - An online index to wills compiled from original Supreme Court files from all districts, including a few wills for people who died outside Queensland.Equity Index 1857-1899  - An online index to original Supreme Court Equity files that include the names of all people connected with a case.Instruments of Renunciation 1915-1983 - Lodged by executors who were no longer willing to administer a will, these records include many details on the deceased and estate.Trustees Files Index 1889-1929 - Files related to trusts set up under the terms of a will. Queensland State Archives435 Compton Road, RuncornBrisbane, Queensland 4113 More recent probates in Queensland are administered by and available through Queensland district court registrars. An index to the most recent probates from all districts can be searched online. Queensland eCourts Party Search – An online index to Queensland Supreme and District Court files from as early as 1992 (Brisbane) to the present. Supreme Court of Queensland, Southern DistrictGeorge StreetBrisbane, Queensland 4000 Supreme Court of Queensland, Central DistrictEast StreetRockhampton, Queensland 4700 Supreme Court of Queensland, Northern DistrictWalker StreetTownsville, Queensland 4810 SOUTH AUSTRALIARecords begin in 1832The Probate Registry Office holds wills and related documents for South Australia from 1844. Adelaide Proformat offers a fee-based probate record access service. Probate Registry OfficeSupreme Court of South Australia1 Gouger StreetAdelaide, SA 5000 TASMANIARecords begin in 1824The Archives Office of Tasmania holds most older records relating to the administration of probate in Tasmania; their Brief Guide 12: Probate includes details on all available records. The Archives Office also has an online index with digitized copies of wills (AD960) and letters of administration (AD961) up to 1989 available for online viewing. Index to Wills Letters of Administration from 1824-1989 (Tasmania) (includes digitized records) Probate RegistrySupreme Court of TasmaniaSalamanca PlaceHobart, Tasmania 7000 VICTORIARecords begin in 1841Wills and probate records created in Victoria between 1841 and 1925 have been indexed and digitized and made available online free of charge. Records of wills and probate records up to 1992 will eventually be included in this online index. Probate records after 1925 and up through about the last decade or so can be ordered through the Public Record Office of Victoria. Public Record Office Victoria99 Shiel StreetNorth Melbourne VIC 3051 Index to Wills, Probate and Administration Records 1841-1925 (Victoria) (includes digitized records) Generally, wills and probate records created within the past 7 to 10 years can be accessed through the Probate Office of the Supreme Court of Victoria. Registrar of ProbatesSupreme Court of VictoriaLevel 2: 436 Lonsdale StreetMelbourne VIC 3000 WESTERN AUSTRALIARecords from 1832Probate records and wills in Western Australia are not generally available online. See Information Sheet: Grants of Probate (Wills) and Letters of Administration from the State Records Office of Western Australia for further information. The State Records Office holds two indexes to wills and letters of administration: 1832-1939 and 1900-1993. Files up to 1947 are available at State Records Office on microfilm for viewing. State Records OfficeAlexander Library BuildingJames Street West EntrancePerth Cultural CentrePerth WA 6000 Most Supreme Court records in Western Australia, including probates, are covered by a 75 year restricted access period to protect the privacy of persons mentioned in the records. Written permission from the Supreme Court is needed before viewing. Probate Office14th Floor, 111 Georges StreetPerth WA 6000

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

The Effects of One-On-One Intervention on Letter Recognition in Dissertation

The Effects of One-On-One Intervention on Letter Recognition in Kindergartners - Dissertation Example ention is not justified because at the end of the day, individual letters do not matter very much and other lesser grilling  methods of teaching can be applied (Gillon, 2004). This study is, therefore, going to look at the effects that some of these interventions have on the kindergarten and establish whether to promote them or curtail their usage. Background and Justification According to Fulk (1997) et al., â€Å"there are various conflicts and concerns about the best way to help the pupil to achieve a concrete letter recognition ability, if at all that is needed.† There have been countless critics of the best way to approach this issue with the maximum result. They carried out a study which will be given shortly in the literature review section. It was clear that there were several methods of intervention such as picture mnemonics, letter speed race, letter, matches, rhyming concepts, ordering methods and so forth. The methods have existed from a very long time but also t here are those that have come up in the recent past which are either created by the individual teachers creatively approaching the subject. The other references that have been applied in this context also agree that the methods are a good mode of teaching (Bastano, 2008). The study is, therefore, justified to seek answers about the effectiveness of the specific letter-recognition intervention method that are being applied by many people in the learning institutions. Martinez (2010) argues that â€Å"despite the curriculum of teaching in schools putting emphasis on the pupils to be able to know letters in all formats and correctly name them, it is not as important as the effort that is put in it†. This poses a big conflict about the justification of the one-on-one intervention of the letter recognition... From this dissertation it is clear that there are various conflicts and concerns about the best way to help the pupil to achieve a concrete letter recognition ability, if at all that is needed. There have been countless critics of the best way to approach this issue with the maximum result. They carried out a study which will be given shortly in the literature review section. It was clear that there were several methods of intervention such as picture mnemonics, letter speed race, letter, matches, rhyming concepts, ordering methods and so forth. The methods have existed from a very long time but also there are those that have come up in the recent past which are either created by the individual teachers creatively approaching the subject. The other references that have been applied in this context also agree that the methods are a good mode of teaching. Martinez argues that â€Å"despite the curriculum of teaching in schools putting emphasis on the pupils to be able to know letters in all formats and correctly name them, it is not as important as the effort that is put in it†. This poses a big conflict about the justification of the one-on-one intervention of the letter recognition exercise. Because of these arguments the instructional techniques that are used in kindergarten setting ought to be customized for the pupils for better results. The question here there ore is how effective are those instructional strategies in the teaching environment and what are the impacts of them on the young minds.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Affirmative Action Policy Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Affirmative Action Policy - Term Paper Example Without this ideologically divisive legislation to help ensure equal opportunity in the workplace, the balance of power in this nation would still more heavily favor the ethnic majority and occupational segregation would still continue much more blatantly than it still does today. A society’s evolution is dependent upon social acceptance on a widespread basis, a slow process that doesn’t appear to happen naturally without the introduction of affirmative action policies. From the time of its implementation, affirmative action laws have succeeded in balancing the scale of employment opportunities available to persons of all ethnicities. The main tool of affirmative action policies, the quota system, is used by governmental offices. It reflects the specific region’s ethnic demographics therefore allowing for legitimate equality that is not biased towards any specific race. Even though the majority ethnic group, white persons, may today think they are being treated u njustly because they have undeniably lost a little ground from an financial perspective, the scale of justice has been adjusted closer to the center thanks mainly to affirmative action hiring policies which demonstrates the need for this system to continue. The expression â€Å"affirmative action† first appeared in 1965 on Executive Order 11246 signed by President Lyndon Johnson. The Order mandated that federal government contractors to â€Å"take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.† In 1967 Johnson expanded the Order to shield women from discrimination too. The Order reads, in part, â€Å"A contractor in violation of E.O. 11246 may have its contracts canceled, terminated, or suspended in whole or in part, and the contractor may be debarred, i.e., declared ineligible for future government contracts.† 1 From its inception, affir mative action hiring policies have helped many thousands from formerly disadvantaged segments of society who have since achieved access to civil service jobs that had been denied previously. This includes persons of color, other ethnic minorities and women who had been excluded from jobs or denied the equal opportunities for advancement within the government institution once attaining access. These employment gains have translated to very real improvements not just in individual person’s lives but in the progression of society’s concept of justice for all. Affirmative action programs cannot hope to eliminate racist attitudes but can mitigate the effects caused by institutional racism. These programs and policies vary with regard to their directives and extent of conformity according to the nature of the chosen organization when applying to the Federal Government. By utilizing this adaptable approach, contractors who maintain a business relationship with the Government may have to adhere more strictly to affirmative action precepts than those of the private sector. The concept of affirmative action has had its opponents and implementing the policy has had its problems, but to eliminate this guiding principle of equal opportunity would be to erase the hard fought successes of the Civil Rights Movement and return to blatant racism present in the country prior to the 1960’s. Arguments involving affirmative action policies are more extensive than just the legality of the issue. It is the ethical responsibility of every person and institution in

Monday, January 27, 2020

Airline Employee Work-Life Balance

Airline Employee Work-Life Balance CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review is a concise overview of what has been studied, argued and establishes about a topic, it also entails about the major findings as well as reviewing the tools and techniques used by the previous studies. This chapter provides review of related literature associated with Work Life Balance of individuals employed in Nepalese Airline Companies. This chapter is divided into two sections. The first section consists of an in depth review of major literature and related theories. The second section presents a brief review of empirical works associated with perception of WLB and work satisfaction of employees of Nepalese Airline Companies (work-family conflict, family work conflict, family satisfaction and psychological health). The literature review has been organized under: a. Review of major literature and related theories b. Review of Nepalese Literature 2.1 Review of major literature and related theories Table 2.1 Summary of major finding Author Major Finding Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985 Work and family role interference suggests that responsibilities in separate domains such as work and family compete with each other in terms of limited time, psychological resources and physical energy, which leads to negative outcomes in both areas. Participation in the work role may interfere or enhance the performance in the family role, and vice versa, participation in the family role may interfere or enhance performance in the work role. Barnett Rivers, 1996 Work and family role enhancement suggests that participation in multiple roles can lead to better functioning in other life domains. Hill, Hawkins   and Miller (1996) High integration of work and family domains can lead to negative consequences, as high flexibility can blur the boundaries between those two domains Clark (2000) WLB is satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict. Presented a border theory according to which family and work domains are separated by borders which could be physical, temporal or psychological. Domains of work and family are essential, as family and work are the most important elements of everyones life. Higher flexibility and lower penetrability between work and family domains can result in lower work-family conflict. Any competing demands of work and family life will cause conflict and negatively affect the wellbeing of workers Edwards et al., (2000) Referred to compensation theory according to which workers try to find more satisfaction in one domain to compensate for the lack of satisfaction in the other domain. (Grzywacz et al, 2000) Studies examining WLB and workers wellbeing were mainly conducted in the United States. Work-family studies have been dominated by role strain and role enhancement perspectives Work-family experience is a joint function of process, individual, time and context characteristics, and does not restrict the experience to either negative or positive. Barnett Hyde, 2001 Family is individuals who are married with children Greenhaus (2003) WLB is the amount of time and the degree of satisfaction with the work and family role. Balance between family and work domains also involves time balance, involvement balance, and satisfaction balance. Frone (2003) Presents a four-fold taxonomy of work-life balance(work-family conflict, family-work conflict, work-family enhancement and family-work enhancement, in which WLB is described as low levels of inter-role conflict and high levels of inter-role facilitation. WLB can be measured by work-family and family- work conflict as well as work-family and family-work enhancement Wise et al.,( 2003) Studies examining WLB and workers wellbeing were mainly conducted in the United Kingdom Bochner ( 2003) Studies examining WLB and workers wellbeing were mainly conducted in the Australia and New Zealand Collins et al., (2003) While assessing relationships between work and family domains, family life is considered as time spent with a spouse and children, ignoring other important aspects of family, such as time spent with parents, siblings and other relatives. Rothbard et al., (2006) Refer to spill-over theory according to which any feelings Allan, et al.,(2007) Research in sociology has been popular area of study for Work Life Balance. Sullivan et al., (2007) Research in gender studies has been popular area of study for Work Life Balance. Grzywacz et al., (2007) WLB is an accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains. There are different beliefs on how work-life balance should be defined, measured and researched Lambert et al., (2007) The majority of research on the correlation between work and family life refers with WLB and organization policies/ organization culture/ Human Resource management/ work commitment/ absenteeism/gender equality/ family life. Grady et al., (2008) Research in human resource management has been popular area of study for Work Life Balance Kelly et al., (2008) Research in organization studies has been popular area of study for Work Life Balance. Grady et al., 2008 Work-life balance is vital for individuals wellbeing, organizations performance and a functioning society. WLB is more comprehensive and includes family, community, recreation and personal time. WLB in its broad sense captures all aspects of employees personal and work life; this suggests that WLB should be focused on individuals, families, workplaces, communities, and society as a whole Casper et al.,(2011) Employees experience more conflict between work and family. Employees experience more conflict between work and family as they continue to follow the quality of life that they need therefor, Work Life Balance has been a necessity (Casper, Harris, Taylor-Bianco,   and Wayne, 2011). For business practices and academic research Work Life Balance has been an important topic. Research in different fields such as sociology (Allan Loudoun, R. Peetz, 2007), psychology (Greenhaus , 2008); (Frone, 2000), Human resource management (Grady, McCarthy, Darcy, Kirrane, 2008); (McDonald, Pini, Bradley, 2007), organization studies (Kelly, et al., 2008) and gender studies (Sullivan Smithson, 2007); (Hill Buchan 2005); (Sullivan Lewis, 2001) has been popular area of study for Work Life Balance. The literature review demonstrates some of WLB definitions. Clark (2000) describes WLB as satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict. Clarke, Koch and Hill (2004) stated that WLB is an equilibrium or maintaining overall sense of harmony in life. Greenhaus, Collins, Shaw (2003) defines WLB as the amount of time and the degree of satisfaction with the work and family role. Frone (2003) presents a four-fold taxonomy of work-life balance, in which WLB is described as low levels of inter-role conflict and high levels of inter-role facilitation. Grzywacz (2007), Yavas and   Babakus (2010) believed that WLB is an accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains. The majority of research on the correlation between work and family life refers to WLB and organization policies or organization culture or Human Resource management or work commitment or absenteeism or gender equality or family life (Casper, et al., 2007). There are a number of studies examining WLB and workers wellbeing. These studies however were mainly conducted in the United States (Grzywacz Marks, 2000) the United Kingdom (Wise, Bond, Meikle, 2003), Australia and New Zealand (Bochner, 2003). In addition, several researchers (Greenhaus, Collins Shaw 2003); (Grzywacz Marks, 2000) noticed that work and family literature, while assessing relationships between work and family domains, considers family life as time spent with a spouse and children, ignoring other important aspects of family, such as time spent with parents, siblings and other relatives. According to Seligman (2012) and Hill (2005) the common consequences of poor WLB are depression and distress, leading to lower productivity, poorer work quality, higher absenteeism and staff turnover .Work-family research has generally been dominated by the study of family and work role interference. However, work and family role enhancement studies seem to be growing in recent years (Grzywacz Marks, 2000). Work and family role interference suggests that responsibilities in separate domains such as work and family compete with each other in terms of limited time, psychological resources and physical energy, which leads to negative outcomes in both areas (Greenhaus Beutel, 1985). In contrast, work and family role enhancement suggests that participation in multiple roles can lead to better functioning in other life domains (Bond, Galinsk Swanber, 1998). This study focuses on work and family role interference, measured by work-family conflict and family-work conflict. However, study on work and family role enhancement is suggested for further research. Bronfenbrenner (1979) insists that Work-life balance is vital for individuals wellbeing, organizations performance and a functioning society. There are different beliefs on how work-life balance should be defined, measured and researched (Grzywacz Carlson,   2007). Different terms are also used by different researchers while referring to work-life balance. Frone (2003), Greenhaus (2003), Clark (2000) refer to the term work-family balance whereas, Clarke (2004) refer to work-family fit, while Clarkberg (2001) refers to work-personal life balance and Grady (2008) refer to work-life balance. As work-family balance is often associated with traditional families which is   individuals who are married with children (Barnett Hyde, 2001), and this study refers to a family in both its traditional and non-traditional form; in order to avoid any confusion, the term work-life balance is used throughout this paper. Grady, McCarthy, Darcy and   Kirrane (2008) stated that the term work-life balance is more comprehensive and includes family, community, recreation and personal time. As stated by Dhas (2015) WLB in its broad sense captures all aspects of employees personal and work life; this suggests that WLB should be focused on individuals, families, workplaces, communities, and society as a whole. Several theories have been proposed by researchers to explain WLB. Clark (2000) presented a border theory according to which family and work domains are separated by borders which could be physical, temporal or psychological. Whereas, Edwards and Rothbard (2000) and Lambert (1990) referred to compensation theory according to which workers try to find more satisfaction in one domain to compensate for the lack of satisfaction in the other domain. However, Rothbard and Dumas (2006) and Grzywacz and Marks (2000) refer to spill-over theory according to which any feelings, emotions, attitudes and behaviors generated in one domain can be transferred or spilled over into the other   domain. Repetti and Crosby (1984), Rubin and Babbie (2010) and Grzywacz and Marks (2000)   proposed   more conceptual models where WLB can be measured by work-family and family- work conflict as well as work-family and family-work enhancement. Grzywacz and Marks (2000) implemented Bronfenbrenners   ecological  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   model which suggests that work-family experience is a joint function of process, individual, time and context characteristics, and does not restrict the experience to either negative or positive (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Clark (2000) explains that focus on the domains of work and family is essential, as family and work are the most important elements of everyones life. Any competing demands of work and family life will cause conflict and negatively affect the wellbeing of workers (Persons Bales 1955), (Frone, 2000). Piotrkowski (1979) and Clark (2000) agree that measurable aspects of WLB are satisfaction, lack of role conflict and an overall sense of harmony. Greenhaus, Collins, and Shaw (2003) and Pallant (2013) believe that balance between family and work domains also involves time balance, involvement balance, and satisfaction balance. Frone (2003) and Piotrkowski (1979) states that the measurable four aspects of the balance between work and family roles are: (a) Work-family conflict (b) Family-work conflict (c) Work-family enhancement (d) Family-work enhancement. As these components have bi-directional effects on work and family domains, participation in the work role may interfere or enhance the performance in the family role, and vice versa, participation in the family role may interfere or enhance performance in the work role (Eagle, Miles Icenogle, 1997), (Frone, 2003), (Grzywacz   Marks, 2000), (Frone, 1992), (Greenhaus Beutell, 1985), (Grzywacz, Almeida McDonald, 2002).This study refers to the definition of WLB presented by Clark (2000), Eisenhardt (2012), Wilmot and   Hocker (2001) who believed that WLB is achieved when there is no role conflict, and when people are satisfied with their work and family roles. This definition seems to be the most relevant to this paper, as participants WLB and work satisfaction was measured using work family conflict, family-work conflict, family satisfaction and psychological health. Any competing demands of work and family life will cause conflict and negatively affect the wellbeing of workers (Frone, 2000), (Clark, 2000). Clark (2000) explained that WLB is influenced by physical borders (workplace walls), temporal borders (working hours) and psychological borders (behavior and thinking patterns) between work and family settings. People cross these borders and make daily transitions between these two settings, often tailoring their focus, their goals, and their interpersonal style to fit the unique demands of each. Clark (2000) argues that keeping work and family lives separate enables the management of work and family borders; however integration of work and family lives eases transitions between those two domains. Each of these two approaches can improve employees well-being. This however is influenced by individuals preferences in terms of separation or integration. Clark (2000) found that higher flexibility and lower penetrability between work and family domains can result in lower work-family conflict. This again depends on individuals preferences regarding segmentation and integration. Research conducted by Fink (2009), Hill and Buchan (2005), Grandey, Cordeiro and Crouter (2005), Grandey and Cropanzano (1999) showed that high integration of work and family domains can lead to negative consequences, as high flexibility can blur the boundaries between those two domains. Flexible, integrative work-family arrangements can improve WLB by enabling employees to spend more time with their family . At the same time, when these integrating arrangements are so high that they blur work-family boundaries, they can worsen WLB and lead to higher work-family conflict, higher dissatisfaction with work and family life, and higher levels of stress or depression (Clark, 2000), (Hill et al, 1996). 2.1.1 Review of related theories.In this section, theories and concepts developed previously relating to Work Life Balance and its sub factors will be reviewed. Conflict Theory: In the social sciences, conflict theory refers to the theoretical approach that views social phenomena as the result of conflict between individuals or groups (Sidanius, 1993). The emergence of work life balance is due to work-family conflict and family work conflict generally. Conflict theory has developed at both micro and macro levels (Klein, 1996). Coser (1993) stated that the micro level studies the individual, and from his or her behavior seeks to draw inferences about collective behavior. Psychologists, social psychologists, and socio biologists locate the cause of conflict behavior in human nature either in the imperatives of survival that have programmed forms of aggressive and defensive response, or in individual aggressive impulses triggered by personality dynamics, such as ego need, frustration, and the projection and displacement of inner anxieties onto others (Levine, 2015) Sociologists, anthropologists, political scientists, and organization and communications theorists adopt the macro approach to conflict (Giddens, 2003). They hold that collective conflict behavior is not the product of individual behavior, but behavior socially induced either by a sense of collective grievance or by national leaders for purposes of defending the national territory or defeating another nation (Adorno, 2002). Tajfel (1979) explained that two groups may compete for scarce status, power, or resources without being in conflict. According to Coser (1993), conflict may have a positive social function. Some political scientists have asserted that conflict may be an unavoidable characteristic (Pondy, 1967). Conflict theory must take account of the motivation and perception of individual leaders and decision makers and to the extent that individual employees are engaged in the conflict by conscious appeals to their beliefs, the micro-level approach to conflict theory remains highly important to any comprehensive theory of conflict (Robbins, 2001). Gender Role Theory: One of the early Work Family Conflict (WFC) theoretical articles (Grandey A. C., 2005) proposed that WFC is intensified when the work and family roles are salient or central to the persons self-concept and when there are strong negative sanctions for noncompliance with role demands. WLB and gender role theories are interconnected as the perception of male and female are different (ONeil, Good Holmes, 1995). According to Grandey, Cordeiro and Crouter (2005) gender role theory, women are more likely to see the family role as part of their social identity than men do. Moreover, as womens roles in the workplace have increased, the expectations placed upon them in the family role have not diminished. Thus, when work imposes on family demands (WIF), women are more likely than men to develop a negative attitude toward the work because the job is more likely to be viewed as threatening a central social role (McLoyd, 1989). On the other hand, according Grandey, Cordeiro and Crouter (2005), men are unlikely to use this information to form work attitudes, because they are less likely to experience a threat to self if the job interferes with family time. Alternatively, at the turn of the twenty-first century, when dual-earner couples are common and women make up between 45percent and 50percent of the workforce in Westernized countries (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2002), (UK National Statistics, 2002). Waldron (1989) emphasied that the context-specific role expectations for men and women have changed.   The studies conducted by Grandey (2005) in US, college students have been gradually less likely to endorse traditional gender role views about work and family. In fact, the extent of WIF and FIW have been found to be similar for men and women, despite gender role theory hypotheses that women experience more WIF and men more FIW (Eagle, 1997); (Groves, 2008); (Gutek, 1991); (Halpern, 2005). In contrast, perhaps men and women do not differ in their reactions to WFC, perhaps when both partners are working; they will equally resent their jobs if work interferes with family (WIF) and appreciate their jobs if this is not the case (Grandey A. C., 2005). Consistent with gender role theory, several studies have supported the proposition that the relationship between global WFC and job satisfaction is stronger for women than for men. This may be spurious, however, because work characteristics may be different for women than for men on average, influencing both WFC and lower job satisfaction (Wayne, Musisca Fleeson, 2004). Gendered-Division of Employment: Gender plays an important role in shaping our lives as even the attitudes and social structures are gendered. In Nepal, the bread winner-home maker model is the fundamental principle of any household. Nepali society greatly believes on the gendered division of labor (Cameron, 1995). Mens and womens preferences are strongly influenced by the interplay between their own gender and the nature of the social structures they encounter (Bussey, 1999). System of domesticity that relies on male breadwinners and female home-makers is largely intact (Cameron, 1995). A substantial minority of U.S adults still believe that men and women should have different work and family responsibilities (Pew research center,2013). Spillover theory: Spillover theory assumes the conditions under which the spillover between work and the family is positive or negative (Korabik, 2009). Research documents that if work-family interactions are strictly structured in time and space, then spillover in terms of time, energy and behavior is generally negative (Grzywacz Marks, 2000) . Research also supports the notion that work flexibility, which enables individuals to integrate and overlap work and family responsibilities in time and space, leads to positive spillover and is instrumental in achieving healthy work and family balance (Hill, et al., 2003). Compensation theory: Compensation is the set of valuable things that is given to employees in exchange for their labor (Sass, 1997). Usually compensation is money which is given to employees as an hourly wage or salary (Lazear, 1996). However, in addition to pay, some organizations offer benefits, stock options, bonuses, profit sharing, commissions, allowances and other rewards (Gerhart, al.,1995). 2.2 Review of Nepalese Literature Table 2.2 Summary of major finding Author Major Finding Tamang (2008) Role ambiguity influences WLB negatively; More ambiguous at work place lower the level of work life balance. Role conflict is positively related to work life balance Negative relationship between role overload and hours spent on paid work with WLB. Positive influence of all family stressor with WLB. Hours spent on household work is most influencing variable Positive effect of WLB on organizational commitment. Employees in the Nepalese hospitality industry do not feel any adverse effect of family domain to work life balance. Yadav and Rani (2015) The most significant issue to influence and develop WLB is organization commitment and individuals commitment. WLB strategies can help organizations in generating stress free environment. The study completed by Tamang (2008) seeks to explore the causes that influence individuals work life balance and its effect. This study was performed due to increasing number of day care centres in Kathmandu which shows Nepalese employees are looking for balancing their work and life domain. The researcher found that in one of the day care centres located at Kathmandu named Stepping Stone Pre-School takes care of 30-35 children some of them aged below 1 year as well. Children arrive early in the morning stay there till evening. With this regard, the researchers primary focus was to explore the condition of work life balance in the Nepalese context. The study examines the work life balance and its cause and effect through a survey conducted during 2008 in nine different stars hotels of Kathmandu, Nepal. Employees of these hotels were surveyed to determine the level of work and family stressors as antecedents, balancing between work and family, and organizational commitment as consequ ence of work life balance. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the condition of work life balance. Regression analysis was also used to examine the cause and effect relationship of work life balance (Tamang, 2008) In the study of Tamang (2008) the following theoretical framework was used:   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Source: Tamang (2008) Figure 2.1 Theoretical framework for work life balance by Tamang. According to Tamang (2008), the following has been discovered: The study found first variable, role ambiguity, as important variables from work domain to influence on work life balance negatively as per theoretical expectation in the context of Nepalese hospitality industry. More ambiguous at work place lower the level of work life balance. Second variable role conflict has been found positively related to work life balance. On the other hand, the study found negative relationship of both variables role overload and hours spent on paid work with work life balance. However, the relationships discussed earlier except of role ambiguity were found statistically insignificant. The study found the positive influence of all the family stressors under study with work life balance in contrary to prior theoretical expectation. Among them the relationship of hours spent on household work alone appeared statistically significant representing most influencing variable from family domain, meaning that engaging in household work leads to feel having good balan ce between work and family in the Nepalese hospitality industry. At the end, the study found the positive effect of work life balance on organizational commitment as per theoretical expectation. In conclusion, the study explores the condition of work life balance in the context of Nepalese hospitality industry. The result shows low level of work and family demand, and good balance between work and family. In fact, employees in the Nepalese hospitality industry do not feel any adverse effect of family domain to work life balance. Especially employees feel good balance between work and family when they get involved in household activities more. On the contrary, ambiguous role at work alone was likely to feel imbalance between work and family for employees in the Nepalese hospitality industry. Finally, the present study provides evidence that the organization can be ensured the increased level of commitment among those employees having good balancing between work and family (P. 96) Another study by (Yadav, 2015) on female work force in Nepal concludes that the most significant issue to influence and develop Work-Life Balance is organization commitment and individuals commitment. The suggested work-life Balance strategies such as appropriate compensation and benefits, better employee relations, challenging job description, employee support plans, suitable employee Grievance Cell, creating productive work environment, family friendly policies, organizing workshops, can help organizations in generating stress free environment for working people and help improved Work life balance.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Why Did Chartism Fail in the 19th Century

In this essay it will be necessary to examine the reason why Chartism failed during the 17th century. Chartists were formed during 1838, 6 years after the ‘great’ reform act was passed. When a group of men met in a local pub and were extremely angry about how badly the reform act was making so little changes, so they made a list of things they thought were eligible for voting rules and branded themselves ‘The Chartists’ and they were out to change how the MP’s were elected throughout Great Britain. The five main men in this debate were Thomas Attwood, William Lovett, Fergus O’Connor, Francis Place and John Frost. Francis, Thomas and William all believed peaceful methods were accepted and the right thing to do, however, on the opposing side was Fergus and John who were certain that violence was the way forward to get political and social changes. I think this point about the chartists is long term because, the men had to settle their differences to come to an agreement on what the next stage would be, therefore the negative side to this would be the disagreement but the positive being the fact they had two smaller groups to hold the public’s different opinions, I think the long term cause of disagreement was the reason for failure. Throughout the Chartism event, the Chartists set up 3 petitions for the general public to sign, and in total they gained 10,296,710 signatures. The first petition was set up in 1839 with 1. million signatures and it was almost 3 miles long, however, it was rejected. But then in 1842, 3 years later, they made yet another petition with a 3. 3 million signatures, but yet again, it was rejected. Finally, in 1848 they made a third petition with a staggering 5. 5 million signatures and yes, it was rejected despite all the hard work and names. These short term causes, I believe, didn’t contribute to the failure of Chartism as the reliability of this source is not good as we don’t know if the figures are exact and compared to the previous point, this is less reliable. Another reason I think that Chartism in the 17th century failed is that on the 10th April 1848, the Chartism demonstration day, only 20,000 people turned up due to the unexpected rain fall that day. Therefore they didn’t get as much popularity and votes as expected and couldn’t get the voting rights they had initially hoped for. This trigger cause I presume was not one of the main reasons Chartism failed as the previous points are more understandable and useful than this one. In conclusion, I believe that the main reason that Chartism in the 17th century failed is because the 5 men who led the organisation all had different views and ideas on how to win the public’s vote; 3 of the men believed that peaceful communications were the way forward and the other 2 men reckoned that violence and abuse was going to win the public and government over. Also as this is what I believe to be the most reliable and useful statement it makes more sense as to why they did not get the rights they wanted originally.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Dreamliner 787 Case Essay

Tara Lentini Week 3 Case Assignment Boeing: Dreamliner 787 Discuss the nature of the market structure and demand for the Dreamliner. What are the implications for Boeing and its customers? The market structure for the Dreamliner is that of an oligopolistic nature which means there are few aircraft manufactures who sell large quantities to its buyers. With Boeings biggest competitor Airbus unable to compete with the Dreamliner product, Boeing has the chance to take over the market for commercial aircraft. The demand for the Dreamliner is derived demand. Due to customer demand for comfortable fair priced airline travel, the demand for the Dreamliner will increase. Customers demand comfort during air travel and the Boeing Airliner promises added luxuries that will increase customer purchases to those airlines with a Dreamliner aircraft. The chief project manager for the Boeing, Tim Cogan stated, â€Å"It’s not Just an evolutionary step†¦ it borders on revolutionary. † This statement is supported by many industry insiders. Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, p188) With such support, the emotions of the airline companies umped at the chance to place an order even with the understanding that the estimated time for delivery was at least 4 years and there was little research to support some of the added luxury amenities. What examples of the major types of buying situations do you see in the case? Discuss the implications of each in terms of marketing strategy? A new-task purchase i s seen with the Dreamliner due to the fact that it is a new product being sold by Boeing. The buying team is comprised of numerous members and the team must decide on specifications regarding the product. The marketer (Boeing) â€Å"tries to reach as many key buying influences as possible but also provides help and information. † (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, pl 73) The amenities of the Dreamliner will assist the buying team in making a decision whether or not the Dreamliner would be a good investment for the company and if so, how many to order. A straight rebuy is also seen in this case. Boeing listed the airliner at a price of $162 million with few customizable options for its buyers. (i. e. seating arrangements). Many aircraft buyers may have already been customers f Boeing and are familiar with their business. A straight rebuy is defined by Kotler and Armstrong as the buyer reorders something without any modifications. Once the buyer purchases the aircraft the straight rebuy buying situation will result in a quicker sale with fewer individuals making a decision on options and product specifications. List the specific features of the Dreamliner. What customer benefits result from each? PASSENGER BENEFITS: 60% quieter than other planes in its class – It is always nice to sleep on a plane however, when seated near the engine it is difficult to rest due to the noise. Many corporate travelers will enjoy this benefit with the late and early morning travel legs. With the added legroom there will no longer be a need to specifically sit in the isle and more options that will equal the comfort of isle seats will come available. Lighting that automatically adjusts to time zone shifts – Changing time zones can be difficult for anyone Circadian rhythms, which are the internal clock we all have which tells us when we it is time for bed and when it is time to rise. These â€Å"clocks† are not easily adjusted when changing time zones. The Dreamliner will posse lighting that imulates â€Å"sunrise and twilight which will assist its passengers adjust to the change in time zones. † (Micke, 2010) Higher cabin pressure and humidity – reducing common flying symptoms such as headaches, dry mouth, and fatigue. All of these symptoms are not what most passengers look forward to; knowing the Dreamliner decreases these symptoms will make it a preferred aircraft for many passengers. Large overhead storage bins – It is always daunting not knowing if your carry on will fit into the overhead storage bins. We have all witnessed a passenger beating their luggage esperately hoping it will pop in before the flight attendant comes by to take it to be stored in the cargo area. 19 inch self-dimming windows – This is a wonderful feature for those who prefer a window seat but have to fght the sunlight to enjoy their flight. Wireless internet and entertainment system – many travelers use the internet to stay connected while away. This option will give business travelers the ability to complete business while on the road. Time sensitive information can be conducted in-flight and travel will no longer be a burden for business travelers. The non-business travel can stay connected with family and friends to inform of flight status and arrival time. Also, wireless access will assist the passenger with passing the time during air travel. AIRCRAFT BUYER BENEFITS: For the buyer of a Dreamliner Aircraft, the marketing aspect will be a breeze. Passengers are always looking for comfort when flying and this aircraft offers many luxury amenities. Airlines with a Dreamliner in their roster will have the ability to sell luxury air travel to its passengers without the luxury cost. The Dreamliner will offer a ighter aircraft resulting in less fuel needed for flights. This aircraft could replace outdated aircrafts that are no longer economically fit. The 787 will expand non-stop markets for its customers with a â€Å"fuel range of 8,500 nautical miles and a maximum speed of Mach . 5. † (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, p187) Also, the Dreamliner offers passenger capacity of 210 to 330 depending on seating arrangement ordered by the customer. With multiple configurations, the buyer of the aircraft has the option to decide what seating confguration would best meet their airline needs. For example, Southwest Airline only offers economy class, so they would order a Jetliner with one type of seating confguration. There is no need for S outhwest to order a Jetliner with first or business class on a Dreamliner. Other airlines may find it necessary to order multiple aircrafts with different seating arrangement to best meet its marketing and customer needs. Discuss the customer buying process for a Boeing airplane. In what major ways does this process differ from the buying process a passenger might go through in choosing an airline? The buying process for an airline placing an order or a Dreamliner would first have to recognize a need for a new aircraft offering the retire due to age may look at the Dreamliner as good solution to add new innovative products to their fleet. Next the buyer would have to recognize the general specifications and quantity needed of an item. Here a buyer of the aircraft would consult engineers and technical personnel to discuss the options available on the Dreamliner Aircraft. For example, the technical staff should be consulted regarding the wireless entertainment system on a Dreamliner. The control tower may need odifications to ensure interference will not be an issue with this type of system. Product specifications needed to meet the airlines customer and marketing needs would have to be listed. In this process, â€Å"the team decides on the best product characteristics and specifies them accordingly. † (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, p177) As for the Dreamliner, the airline would specify the seat options available. For example, Southwest Airlines only offers economy seating for their passengers. If Southwest chooses to purchase a Dreamliner, they would specify one seating option or their aircraft. Once the order is placed for a Dreamliner, the buyer should conduct a performance review to ensure the product will be delivered on time and to ensure they are aware of any problems that may arise. At this â€Å"stage of the buying process the buyer assesses the performance of the supplier and decides to continue, modify, or drop the arrangement. † (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, p179) Most passengers choosing an airline are looking for the least expensive direct flight to their destination. The buying process for an airline ticket for a few hundred dollars is ess complex than that of purchasing an aircraft for over one hundred million dollars. Many travelers have a preferred airline and do not shop around for deals. They use the preferred airline and earn air miles towards free flights. As for me, I do not have a preferred airline, however I do enjoy Southwest because of first come first serve seating. Yet, most travelers will look at price first, direct flight possibilities, and airport location before booking a flight. There is little thought that goes into aircraft options when a ticket is purchased. What marketing recommendations would you make to McNerney as he continues to try to resolve the problems with the 787 Dreamliner program? McNerney needs to stay fully involved in the operations of the Dreamliner to ensure all suppliers and manufactures are completing production on time. Performance reviews of the suppliers must be taken seriously and the decision to drop or modify the arrangement must be made in a timely fashion. With 70 percent of the work being outsourced to dozens of partnering firms, he cannot be blinded by incomplete or inaccurate production. The longer it takes to assess the supplier performance the longer the delay in production and delivery will be for the Dreamliner.